Carlo Maria Giulini’s Biography
He studied viola and composition at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome and played under the guidance of Otto Klemperer and Bruno Walter. Later he decided to become a conductor and studied under Bernadino Molinari. From 1946 he conducted for the RAI, and he took over its Symphony Orchestra in Milan when it was founded in 1950. In 1948 he conducted his first opera, «La Traviata» by Verdi. In 1951 he got to know Arturo Toscanini; a year later he made his debut at the Scala with «La vida breve» (engl. «The short life») by de Falla. He worked at Covent Garden in London with Lucchino Visconti «Don Carlos» and with Franco Zeffirelli «Falstaff» (both by Verdi). In 1955 he conducted in the United States (Chicago) for the first time, and in 1960 he went on a major tour of Japan. In 1963 he returned to the Scala and conducted «Don Giovanni» by Mozart. In 1969, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra appointed him as its principal guest conductor; in 1973 he became the director of the Vienna Symphony Orchestra (until 1976). From 1978-84 he was the successor to Zubin Mehta as the musical director of the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra, and he made several tours of Europe with this orchestra. As a specialist for the Italian opera, Giulini spent at least six months in each year in his home in spite of his international career. For the last few years he has limited himself to concerts and worked with just a few orchestras (Orchestre de Paris, Philharmonic Orchestra of the Scala, Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the Philharmonic Orchestras of Berlin and Los Angeles). He was responsible for the first performance of works by the following composers: Boris Blacher’s «Poème» (1976), Gottfried von Einem’s «An die Nachgeborenen» (engl. «To those yet to be born») (1975), Giorgio Federico Ghedini’s «Concerto dea’albatro» (engl. «The concert of the albatross») (1945), Ezra Ladermann’s «Symphony No. 4» (1981), Goffredo Petrassi’s «Ottavo concerto» (engl. «Concert of quavers») (1972), Mario Zafred’s «Symphony No. 3» (1950).